Working Group 6 July Interim Report; Annexe B

Appendix 4

What do you expect the effects of changes towards net zero being rolled out already to be?

Last updated: 05 July 2022

Table 4. Summary of responses: What do you expect the effects of changes towards net zero being rolled out already to be?






Farmers & veterinary surgeon


Farming methods

  • Less food production in the UK especially of ruminants and probably wheat and barley
  • Circular agriculture principles, precision farming


  • Crop production inputs
  • Move away from synthetic nitrogen-based fertiliser to more organic based
  • Field carbon sequestration.
  • Increased environmental hygiene risk (particularly Listeria mono) in non-competitive growing environments and post-harvest environments where less biocide use
  • Increased product contamination risks (e.g., toxic weeds) due to lack of herbicide options
  • Removal of food safety steps (e.g., product washing)
  • Less process steps and eyes on crop to identify and remove physical contaminants Animal husbandry
  • Use of novel feedstuffs
  • Greater integration of livestock and arable farming in some areas
  • Improved productivity per hectare (vertical farming)

Food safety risk


  • Possibility of nutritional and some food safety risks
  • Increased risk of zoonosis / animal derived pathogens – particularly with further intensification of livestock rearing
  • Conditioners, amendments – potential for new risks and bad practice





  • Long term energy security and resilience



Lower carbon emissions

  • Lower carbon emissions
  • Lower carbon emissions
  • Reduction in carbon
  • Lower carbon emissions

Process optimisation

  • Progressive improvement in food processing cost



  • Process optimisation
  • Better use of the limited resources
  • Better materials for the same shelf life
  • Improvement in the efficiency of established models and supply chains.



  • Higher investment


  • Increased investment


Knowledge sharing


  • Greater awareness




  • Sharing best practice.

Better understanding of what food system we need

Land use


  • Changes in land use
  • Greater interest in the countryside and less respect for land ownership without delivering public benefit



  • Changes in land management and food production

Attitudinal change

  • Attitude shift in consumer demands (e.g., less meat consumption)


  • 'Quality not quantity' changes in consumer eating habits
  • Less meat consumption



  • Changes in taxation



Increased costs


  • Higher costs
  • Short term Opex increases
  • In electricity
  • Increased price of quality food


More complexity



  • More complexity



Local procurement


  • More local procurement
  • Reducing import of animal protein from high Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission intensity systems






  • Waste collection





  • Packaging redesign





  • Better nutrition





  • More data and measurable





  • Roboticisation and automation