Working Group 6 July Interim Report; Annexe B

Appendix 2

What developments are in trial that have potential to roll out in the next ten years?

Last updated: 05 July 2022

Table 2. Summary of responses: What developments are in trial that have potential to roll out in the next ten years?





Farmers & veterinary surgeon


Farming methods

  • Animal breeding
  • More efficient and resilient animals
  • Lower carbon footprint
  • Precision agriculture in crops and livestock
  • Integration of arable and livestock systems
  • Soil health


  • Sustainable intensification
  • Lower carbon agronomy
  • Crop production
  • Leguminous plants co cropped with wheat to replace nitrogen fertiliser
  • Nitrogen without CO2
  • Aquaculture
  • Multi-stream culture systems (e.g., fish plus water plants such as watercress)
  • Ocean farming and harvesting of seaweed
  • Crop production
  • Mixed rotations
  • Less use of manufactured fertilisers
  • Perennial energy crops (miscanthus, willow)
  • Crop inputs
  • Reduced inputs and increased sequestration
  • Reduced reliance on ammonium nitrate fertiliser-circular economy development
  • Precision crop and livestock agriculture
  • Improved reproductive performance
  • Specific genetic progress
  • Gene editing precision
  • Regenerative agriculture techniques
  • Livestock-related developments e.g., intensive indoor dairy farming
  • Acceleration of biopesticide use
  • Slurry cooling to mitigate ammonia emissions
  • Agroforestry/agri-ecology, precision agriculture, urban agriculture, vertical farming, advanced breeding techniques



  • Zero fossil fuel use
  • Electrification
  • Hydrogen generation plants
  • Bio-hydrogen
  • Ohmic and pulsed electric field heating
  • Refrigeration
  • Improving efficiency
  • Onsite energy generation
  • Renewable energy
  • Electricity generation
  • Wind and solar are variable
  • Tides are predictable
  • Next generation technologies that consume less energy using advanced process control.
  • Green energy
  • Electric generation
  • Gas to grid
  • Tractor biogas fuelling
  • Land-based renewables and energy storage, for on-farm and export
  • Reduced emissions methods
  • Scrubbers and catalyst systems
  • Anaerobic digestion to generate "negative emissions"
  • Green energy
  • Hydrogen fuel for supply chain transport and factory
  • Vehicle and machinery electrification

Animal feed

  • Alternative feed
  • Biotechnology in feed ingredients, including generation of enzymes and supplements
  • Reduce enteric fermentation's emission of methane - including archaeal suppressant commercial use
  • Feed rations that deliver lowest carbon footprint per product (not just feed input)
  • Home grown feed replacement of soya
  • Alternative sources of protein
  • Optimal nutrition including use of supplements to manage the rumen microbiome to reduce methane
  • Diet
  • In cattle to reduce methane production
  • Insect protein (including for aquaculture)
  • Improvements to feed utilisation
  • Alternatives to soya in feed formulation


Land use

  • Changes in subsidies to farmers will change land use especially in the uplands.
  • Peatland restoration, farm woodland / agroforestry, more hedgerows,
  • ELMS (Environmental Land Management Scheme)


  • Nature-based solutions
  • Increased increments in hedges, new woodlands, soil carbon management
  • Agroforestry


  • Optimising land for carbon sequestration

Consumer diet change


  • Dietary change 
  • Reduced meat and dairy consumption
  • Alternative sources of protein


  • More dairy and meat substitutes
  • Novel proteins
  • Cultured meat
  • Minimally processed foods
  • Eating less meat but higher quality
  • Eat local



  • Use of former foods and utilisation of coproducts
  • Reducing food waste
  • Supply chain integration to reduce stocks and waste.
  •  Circular economy principles for waste reduction
  • NPD based on food by-products.
  • Endemic disease control to reduce the waste associated with disease and increased productivity
  • Measures to reduce food loss and waste
  • Waste valorisation
  • Abstraction of slurry
  • Reduced food waste in home as a result of increased prices
  • Recycling of non-PET 5



  • Food packaging changes.
  • Closed loop recycling of plastic packaging


  • More information supplied on packs regarding carbon footprint of products
  • Biobased packaging materials
  • Closed loop packaging


  • Better use of manures and measures to reduce N2O and NH3 loss on farm


  • Farmers using tools to measure what is going on farm




  • Zero carbon factories
  • Cellular agriculture to produce factory grown meat


  • Product and process redesign (net zero by design) redistributed manufacture.



  • Urban farms based on Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology for salad and similar crops.
  • New technologies
  • Genetic
  • Feed additives
  • Feed proteins
  • Robotics
  • Drones
  • Electric agricultural machinery